Lights & Buoys

Aids To Navigation

Aids To Navigation   are special structures like Lighthouses, Lightships, Beacons, Buoys, etc that are used to enhance safety by providing more opportunities to obtain LOPs.
 
These lights and marks are prescribed across the world by the International Association of Lighthouse Authorities (IALA). In 1997 this IALA endorsed two maritime buoyage systems putting an end to the 30 odd systems existing at that time. Region A –IALA-A covers all of Europe and most of the rest of the world, whereas region B – IALA -B covers only the Americas, Japan, the Philippines and Korea. Fortunatly the differences between these two systems are few. The most striking difference is the direction of buoyage.
All marks whithin the IALA system are distinguished by:
 
Shape
 
Colour
 
Topmark
 
Light
 
Light Identification
 
 
During daytime the identification of aid to navigation is accomplished by observing: Location, Shape, Colour Scheme, Auxillary Features (sound signals, Racon, RC, etc) or Markings (name, number etc)
 
During the night, we use the features of aid to navigation’s Light to both identify it and assetain its purpose. There are three features to describe the light.
 
Colour: Either white, red green or yellow. If no colour is stated in the chart, Default is white.
 
Period: The time in seconds needed  for one complete cycle of changes.
123The arrow indicates the 10 second period of flashing light “Fl(3)10s”Phase characeristic: The particular pattern of changes within one complete cycle (hense, within one period).Below are the most common types.
 Fixed F
fixedyellowThis light shines with an unblinking and steady intensity and is always on. In this example a yellow fixed light is shown.
Flashing Fl:
flash1The duration of the light is always less than the duration of the darkness. The frequency does not exeed 30 times per minute.
 Quick Flashing  Q:
QflashingAgain the duration of quick flash is less than the darkness. The frequency is at least 60 times per minute.
Very Quick Flashing   VQ:
vqflashingAlso here, the duration of very quick flash is less than the darkness. The frequency is at least 100 times per minute.
Interupted Quick Flashing  IQ:
interuptedLike quick flashing with one moment of darkness in one period.
Isophase   Iso:
isophaseThis light has equal duration between light and darkness. A period consists of both a light and dark interval, Also called equal interval (E Int).

Group Flashing  Gp Fl(x+x):
groupflashThis is actually a combination of two pat terns in one period.In this example the first two flashes followed by the pattern of 3 flashes result in: Gp Fl(2+3)
Occulting Occ:
occulting1Occulting is the opposite of flashing, the light is more on than off.
Alternating AL:
alternatingAn alternating light changes colour. This special purpose light is typically used for special applications requiring the exercise of great caution. In this example ALT.WG is show, alternating between green and white.
Morse Mo (U):
morse1This light shows two flashes and a long flash, Which is equivalent to the letter “U” in morse code.
Long Flashing   LF l:                                                        
longflash (1)This light has one long flash in a period, A long flash is a least 2 seconds long.                                                                                              
Let’s look at some examples using colour, Period and phase characteristics. The arrows mark the periods:

F14.8Fl (4) 8s          

oc2.3.10Oc (2+3)1                                                                                  

isog4Iso G 4s                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
All lighted aids to navigation are either Major or Minor lights, where major lights are used for key navigational points along sea coasts, channels and harbour and river entrances. These lights are normally placed in lightships, lighthouses and other permanently installed structures, providing both high intensity and high reiability of the lights. Major lights are then subdivided in primary lights (very strong, long range lights used for the purpose of making landfalls or coastal passages) andsecondary lights (shorter range lights found for example at harbour and river entrances). Important details of (especially) primary lights can be found in a referance called the Light List where information (about pedestals ect.) can be found which is not included in the chart. Minor lights on the other hand are likely to be found within harbours, along channels and rivers. These have a low to moderate intensity and sometimes mark isolated dangers.
 
Six Types Of Navigation Buoys
 
Lateral
 
Cardinal
 
Isolated Danger
 
Safe Water 
 
New Wreck
 
Special
 
Lateral buoys and marks
 
The location of lateral buoys defines the borders of channels and indicates the direction, Under IALA A  red buoys mark the port side of the channel when returning from sea, whereas under IALA B green buoys mark the port side of the channel when sailing towards land. Red buoys have even numbers and red lights; green buoys have odd numbers and green lights. Lateral lights can have any calm phase characcteristic exept FL (2+1).
redbuoys        greenbuoys
twochannelbuoyGenarally, when two channels meet, one will be designated the prefared channel (ie. most important channel). The buoy depicted on the right indicates the preferred channel to starboard under IALA A. The light phase characteristic is R FL (2+1).
rfl21

 

portchannelThe buoy depicted above indicates the preferred channel to port under the IALA A, These buoys are marked with the names and numbers of both channels. The light phase characteristic is G  FL  (2+1): gf21
For an example of lateral buoys used to mark a (preferred) channel, see direction of buoyage below.
 
Cardinal Buoys
The four cardinal buoys indicate the safe side of a danger with an approximate bearing. For example, the west cardinal buoy has safe water on its west, and the danger on its east side. Notice the “clockwise” resemblance of the lightphase characteristics. The top marks consist of two black triangles placed in accordance with the black/yellow colour scheme of the buoy. When a new obstacle (not yet shown on charts) needs to be marked, Two cardinal buoys – for instance a south buoy and an east buoy – will be used to indicate this “uncharted” danger, The cardinal system is identical in both IALA A and IALA B buoyage systems

 

cardinalsystem1

Marks Indicating Isolated Dangers

isolateddangerThis type of buoy indicates the position of an isolated danger, contrary to cardinal buoys which indicate a direction away from danger. Body: black with red horizontal band(s); Topmark: 2 black spheres. The light (when present) consists of a white flash: Fl(2)whitef1.2

Marks Indicating Safe Water

safewaterNotice that whereas most horizontal striping spells “danger”, this safe water buoy is vertically striped. These marks are for example seaward of all other buoys  (lateral and cardinal) and can be used to make landfall. Body: red and white vertical stripes; Topmark (if any): single red sphere. Lights are typically calm and white: Morse A, Iso, Occ or LFl 10s.

Marks For New Wrecks
After the sinking of the “Tricolor” in the Pas de Calais (Dover Straits) in 2002, several other vessels hit the wreck despite standard radio warnings, three guard ships and a lighted buoy. This incident spawned a new type of buoy, the emegency wreck marking buoy, which is placed as close as possible to a new dangerous wreck.

wreckThe emergency wreck marking buoy will remain in position until: a) the wreck is well known and has been promulgated in nautical publications; b) the wreck has been fully surveyed and exact details such as position and least depth above the wreck are known; and c) a permanent form of marking of the wreck has been carried out.
The buoy has the following characteristics:
A pillar or spar buoy, with size dependanton location.
Coloured in equal number and diamensions of blue and yellow vertical stripes (minium of four stripes and a maximum of eight stripes)
Fitted with an alternating blue and yellow flashing light with a nominal range of 4 nautical miles where the blue and yellow 1 second flashes are alternated with an interval of 0.5 seconds. B1.0s +0.5s +Y1.0s +0.5s = 3.0s b1
If muliple buoys are deployed then the lighs will be synchronized.
A racon Morse Code”D” and/or AIS transponder can be used. The topmark, if fitted is a standing/upright yellow cross.
It is important to realize – especially for the colour blind – that this new buoy breaches the useful and crucial convention: vertical stripes equal safety, horizontal stripes equal danger.
 
Special Buoys And Marks

specialbuoys

I have saved these buoys for last since they lack an actual navigational goal. Most of the time these yellow buoys indicate pipelines or areas used for special purposes. I have drawn the five official IALA shapes,from left to right conical, spar, cylindrical, pillar and spherical.

Chart Symbols

The seafaring nations of the world – members of the International Hydrographic Organization – agreed in 1982 on an universal set of chart symbols, abbreviations, colours ect to be used in the  nautical chart, in order to obtain uniformity.

On regular charts a white, red, yellow or green light will be indicated bytear1 , and on GPS displays and modern multicoloured charts in specific colours :tear3 , with the yellow coloured lobe indicating a white light. The precise position of a chart symbol is its centre, or is indicated with a line and circle , the position circle.

Two Distinct Types Of Sea Mark Are Drawn Differently In The Chart:

Beacons – fixed to the seabed; drawn upright;
Buoys – consisting of a floating object that is usualy anchored to a specific location on the sea floor; drawn at an oblique angle and with oblique numbering, decriptions of colours and light charactistics.
majorfloatinglightMajor floating light (light – vessel, major-light float, LANBY)

lightvesselLight-vessel

majorfloatinglightMajor light; Minor light

grblbuoysGreen or black buoys (symbols filled black): G= Green; B= Black

gr.blbeacon Green or black beacon (symbol filled black). Note the upright G, instead of an oblique G

singlecolouredbuoys Single coloured buoys other than green and black: Y = Yellow ; R = Red

colouerdbeaconColoured beacon other than green and black, the symbol is again filled black so only the shape of the topmark is of navigational significance.

multiplecoloursMultiple colours in horizontal bands, the colour sequence is from top to bottom

multipulcolourverticalMultiple colours in vertical or diagonal stripes, the darker colour is given first. W = White

sparbuoySpar buoy ( here a safe water mark)

lightedbuoygpsLighted marks on multicoloured charts, GPS displays and chart plotters.

redlightedbeaconLighted red beacon on standard charts.

redlgreenRed beacon and green buoy with topmark, colour, radar reflector and designation. Red buoys and marks are given even numbers, green buoys and marks are given odd numbers.

Wave-actuatedWave – actuated bell buoy to the left, and to the right a Light buoy, with a horn giving a single blast every 15 seconds, in conjunction with a wave-actuated whistle. Other sounds include “Gong”, “Siren”, “Diaphone (Dia). The fog signal symbol may be omitted when a description of the signal is given.

leadingbeaconLeading Beacons – Leading line (firm line is the track to be followed)

Leading Lights
leadinglights
# : any two objects in line under each other). Bearing given in degrees and minutes. The lights are synchronized. The red light has a shorter nominal range ( the distance from which the light can be seen) : 10 nautical miles.
sectorAll- round light with obscured sector.

sector1Sector light on mulicoloured charts. The elevation is 21 meters ( height of the light structure above chart datum). The nominal range of the white light is 18 nautical miles. The range of the green and red lights is 12 nautical miles.

mainlightMain light visible all-round with red subsidiary light seen over danger. The fixed red light has an elevation of 55 metres and a nominal range of 12 nautical miles. The flashing light is white, with 3 flashes in a period of 10 seconds. The elevation is higher than the red light: 62 metres and the range of the white light is 25 nautical miles.

directionbuoyageSymbol showing direction of buoyage (where not obvious).

ilia2directionSymbol showing direction of buoyage (where not obvious), on multi-coloured charts (red and green circles coloured as appropriate), here IALA A

Full Example Of A Light Description In The Chart
Fl (3)WRG.15s21m15-11m
Class Of Light: group flashing repeating a group of three flashes;
Colours: white, red, green, exibiting the different colours in defined sectors;
Period: the time taken to exhibit one full sequence of 3 flashes and eclipses: 21 metres;
Nominal Range(s): white 15m, green 11m; red between 15 and 11m where “M” stands for nautical miles.

Lateral Marks- direction of buoyage
Lateral marks are generally for well- definded channels and there are two international Buoyage Regions – A and B – where these lateral marks differ. Where in force, the IALA System applies to all fixed and floating marks exept landfall marks, leading lights and marks, sectored lights and major floating lights.

The standard buoy shapes are cylindrical (can)can , conicalconical , sphericalsp , pillarpillar and sparspar , but variations may occur, for example: minor light- floats . In the illustrations below, only the standard buoy shapes are used. In the case of fixed beacons – lit or unlit- only the shape of the topmark is of navigational significance.

IALA Region A: Europe, Africa, New Zeland, Australia, China, India, Russia, Indonesia,Turkey, Middle East ect.
ILIAa
IALA Region B: Americas, Japan and Korea.

ILIAb

Visibility Of Lights
It is important to know at what distance we may(begin to) see a certain light, and when we can expect to lose sight of it, especially when making landfall. Several practical ranges are used to describe the visibility of lights in navigation:
The Meteorological Range is based on the current atmospheric conditions. The table below shows that the atmosphere immensely influences the visibility of light travelling through it.

Meteorological Optical Range Table
Code Weather Distance(m) Code Weather Distance (nautical miles)

0 Dense Fog Less than 50 metres 5 Haze 1.0 – 2.0

1 Thick Fog 50 – 200 6 Light Haze 2.0 – 5.5

2 Moderate 200 – 500 7 Clear 5.5 – 11.0

3 Light Fog 500 – 1000 8 Very Clear 11.0 – 27

4 Thin Fog 1000 – 2000 9 Exeptionally Clear Over 27.0

The Geographic Range is based on the elevation of the light. A higher light means that its horizon is farther away, see distance of horizon. Morever, if the observer’s height of eye is higher than sea level the light can be seen beyond its geographic range, the dipping range. However on sailing yachts this potential is limited.
The Nominal Range of a light is based on its candlepower, and is typically the range mentioned in the chart. The nominal range is the maximum distance at which a light can be seen in weather conditions where visibility is 10nm.
So, a minor light – perched on a 70m high cliff – with a geographic range of 20nm will not be detectable by the human eye at a distance of 6nm.
1. if the nominal range is just 5nm.
2. if the meteorological range is just 5nm due to light haze.
Because of the limiting factor of the geographic range, most major lights will never be seen from a sailing yacht 20nm miles away. yet, it is sometimes possible to take a bearing on the loom of the light: its reflection against the clouds.
Differtent coloured lights with equal candlepower have different ranges. White light is the most visible followed by yellow, green and then red. herefore, at extreme ranges an “AL WG” can resemble a “Fl W”.
The range of a lit buoy is never indicated – with the exeption of a LANBY – but on a clear night the maximum range is 3 nm, yet often considerably less. There are 2 visual clues to determin your distance from a buoy: at about 0.5 nm, the light will rise up from the horizon, and about 200nm, the light will reflect in the surface.
buoy3nmr                            buoy0.5nm                                  buot200mtr
Buoy at less                                       Buoy at less                                          Buoy at less
than 3nm                                            than 0.5 nm                                         than 200nm

Glossary
Navigation Aid: An onboard instrument, device, chart, method, ect., intended to assist in the navigation.
Aid To Navigation:  A device or structure external to the ship, designed to assistin determination of position, to define a safe course, or to warn of dangers or obstructions.

Mark, Seamark, Navigation Mark: An object or artificial or natural object of easily recognizable shape or colour, or both, situated in such a position that it may be identified on a chart. A fixed artificial navigation mark is often called a Beacon.

Light Characteristics: The sequence and length of light and dark periods and the colour or colours by which a navigational light is identified.

Topmark: One of more objects of characteristic shape placed on top of a buoy or beacon to aid in its identification.

Latereral Mark: An aid to navigation intended to mark the sides of a channel or waterway.

Cardinal Marks: An IALA aid to navigation intended to show the location of a danger to navigation based on its position relitive to the danger using the “cardinal point”: north, east, south, west.

Isolated Danger Marks: An IALA aid to navigation marking a danger with clear water all around it; it has a double ball topmark and is black with at least one red band. If lighted its characteristic is Fl(2).

Sector Light: A light having sectors of different colours or the same colour in specific sectors separated by dark sectors.

Light Sector: As defined by bearings from seaward, the sector in which a navigatioal light is visible or in which it has a distinctive colour difference from that of adjoining sectors, or in which it is obscured.

Light House: A distinctive structure exhibiting a major navigational light.

Light List: A publication giving detailed imformation regarding lighted navigational aids and fog signals.

Landfall: The first sighting (even by radar ) of land when approached from seaward.

Range: Two or more objects in line. such objects are said to be in range. An observer having then in range is said to be on the range. Two beacons are frequently located for the secific purpose of forming a range to indicate a safe route or the centreline of a channel.

Leading Line: On nautical chart, a straight line, drawn through leading marks. A ship moving along such line will clear certain dangers or remain in the best channel.

Range Lights: Leading Lights; Two or more lights at different elevations so situated to form a range (leading line) when brought into transit. The one nearest to the observer is the from light and the one farthest is the rear light. The front light is at a lower elevation than the rear light.

Lights in Line: Two or more lights so situated that when observed in transit they define a position: the limit of an area, an alignment used for anchoring, ect. Not to be confused with range lights, which mark a direction to be followed.

Light Float: A buoy having a boat – shaped body. Light floats are nearly always unmanned and are used instead of smaller lighted buoys in waters where strong currents are experienced.

Primary (sea coast) Light: A light established for purpose of making landfall or coastwise past from headland to headland.

Secondary Light: A major light, other than a primary (sea coast) light, established at harbour entrances and other locations where hight insensity and reliability are required.

Major Light: A light of high intensity and reliability exibited fron a fixed structure (lighthouse) or on marine site (exept rangelights). Major lights include primary sea-coast and secondary lights.

Minor Light: an automatic unmanned light on a fixed structure usually showing low to moderate intensity. Minor lights are established in harbours, along channels, along rivers, and in isolated dangers.

Visual Range: The extreme distance at which an object of light can be seen.

Geographic Range: The extreme distance limited by the curvature of the earth and both the heights of the object and the observer.

Bobbing A Light: Quickly lowering the height of eye and raising it again when a navigational light is first sighted to determine if the observer is at the geographic range of the light.

Luminous Range: The extreme distance limited only by the intensity of the light, clearness of the atmosphere and the sensitiveness of the observers eye.

Luminous Range Diagram: A diagram used to convert the nominal range of a light to its luminous ranfe under existing contitions.

Charted Or Nominal Range: The nominal range is indicated in the chart next to the light or can be found in the Light List. This is the maximum distance at which the light may be seen at night based upon intensity and 10 nautical miles of visibility.

Meteorological Range: The nominal range is indicated in the chart next to the light or can be found in the Light List. This is the maximum distance at which the light may be seen at night based upon intensity and 10 nautical miles of visibility.

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